7 countries where graduate school is a fraction of US costs

Feature photo by scui3asteveo. Photo above by John Althouse Cohen.

Seven amazing opportunities across the globe for those looking for a higher education.

SOMETIMES I WONDER if my undergraduate degree, which gave me a solid foundation in the History of Science and has led to a lucrative career in international vagabonding, is worth the $10,000 of student loans I am evading by living in Oaxaca, Mexico.

I ponder this, sometimes wallowing in bitterness, as I pore over the websites of American universities in search of graduate programs that won’t leave me forever indebted and doomed to the life of a backpacker on the run.

There are very few such programs—American education is undoubtedly very good, but it is also very expensive.

So, for those of us who love the experience of delving into and becoming part of different places, doesn’t it make sense to look abroad? The world offers some excellent opportunities for graduate school that might actually leave you spare change to, say, eat, and travel.

Thus, what follows: a brief overview of seven countries where you can get a graduate degree at a fraction of the price you’d pay in the U.S.

Photo by Martin Dougiamas.


At around $2,000 a year, graduate programs in Spain are an incredible deal. The University of Barcelona ranks as one of the three best universities in Ibero-America (the other two being the UNAM of Mexico City and the University of Sao Paolo), and the University of Madrid is not far behind.

Masters degrees are diverse, going way beyond the simple categories of anthropology or sociology—how about an analysis of the history and culture of food? Or the management of cultural heritage? Why not get a degree in women, gender, and citizenship studies? And of course, there are plenty of offerings in the sciences, from an interdisciplinary analysis of water to the study of artificial intelligence and mathematics.


I apologize for giving way to cliché, but France, whether you love it or hate it, has an age-old association with intellectual life. Intellectuals have long been the Marilyn Monroes and Tom Cruises of France, and the quality and seriousness of French higher education reflects this cultural preference.

The Ecole Normale Superior de Paris ranks at number 28 in the list of the world’s top universities, and tuition for international graduate students is a whopping 190 Euros a year.

Photo by Riviera Kid.


Graduate school is free. The website for Uppsala university announces this nonchalantly, as if the whole world lived in the calm socialist paradise that is Sweden.

Now, keep in mind that you’ll probably be paying about five Euros for a beer and who knows how much for any sort of classy lifestyle, but with free tuition, you can take down two Euro espressos right and left while you hit the books.

Plus, Uppsala offers a whole catalogue of Master’s programs in English, unlike other Swedish universities that require a good working knowledge of Swedish.


Yet another case in which very solid, well-ranked universities come in at around 100-500 Euros a year for tuition. You’ll have to contend with somewhat exorbitant living costs, particularly in the country’s financial centers, but by living like a good ol’ suffering grad student (think of a steady diet of comforting, hearty pasta) you should come out with a pretty good deal in the end.

German language skills are required for some schools; others, such as the University of Berlin, offer a selection of degrees in English.

Photo by mjmyap.


Asian students flock to Singapore by the thousands to take advantage of the (relatively) cheap and high quality education. Singapore National University is ranked at number 30 in the world, and tuition stands at around $4,000 a year for international graduate students.

Potential students with interests in Asian studies can explore a range of Masters degrees, from broader studies of Asian civilization to critical analyzes of Southeast Asia or the Malay Peninsula.

For those deeply embedded in love affairs with Asia and wanting to further them in an academic setting, Singapore offers a melting pot of Asian cultures, a high quality graduate education, and ah, yes, the affordability that allows you to take a much-needed chill weekend from time to time on a Thai beach.


With tuition around $1,000 USD a year, the Universidad Autonoma de Mexico offers a tempting alternative to rival schools just North of the border.

And with UNAM ranking as one of Latin America’s most prestigious universities (along with Argentina’s University of Buenos Aires) you are really, let’s say, getting what you do not have to pay for: a top-quality graduate degree.

For those interested in Latin American studies and history, the program recently initiated here is one of the best in the world. And if Mexico City seems to you like an experience in pure chaos, try Puebla, Monterrey, or one of the CIESAS research institutes located throughout the country, all of which offer quality graduate degrees at prices comparable to that of UNAM.

Photo by DanieVDM.

South Africa

The country in and of itself is an education, and provides a seething, transforming, highly charged backdrop to academic study.

Universities have taken advantage of the country’s post-apartheid opening up to promote academic and personal freedom, as well as the study of many disciplines banned or marginalized in the past. Cape Town and Johannesburg contain the most well recognized universities, each of which charges around $4,000 a year in tuition for international graduate students.

Add to this the fact that the cost of living in South Africa affords grad students a much greater degree of luxury than they would experience in Europe or the U.S., and voila, you have the tantalizing prospect of plowing away at a doctorate without having to survive on heaping bowls of spaghetti.

Keep in mind this list is only the beginning. Start doing research online: the aptly named International Graduate Schools website has plenty of listings of specific schools and programs, but in my opinion the Top Grad School site is even better, with rankings, statistics, and programs listed for most major schools in dozens of countries.

Good luck, and may you save as much as you learn!


Still aren’t convinced that study abroad is right for you? Read Tanya Brothen’s article, Study Abroad: What Are You Waiting For?”.

Have you done grad work abroad? Share your experiences and insights below!

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  • Eva

    Hey Sarah, not sure if you're still in the market, but University of Toronto has a fantastic graduate program in the history of science! Canadian schools aren't dirt cheap, but they're certainly much cheaper than US ones — and U of T has excellent funding options, too…

  • Hal

    International grad school is on my radar for 2010–thanks for the ideas and resources.


    Do these schools offer programs in English? Singapore would right?

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Thanks for the tip, Eva–I think the past four years have steered me more in the direction of anthropology, so that's where I'm headed whenever I work out the massive ambiguities I feel about grad school. I checked the University of Toronto site when I was researching this article and it seemed like tuition came in around $18,000 Canadian dollars, which to me seemed like a ton! Is that true, or did I miss something? Also, do you have any recommendations vis-a-vis anthropology programs in your native land? And I thought I read that you did a Master's in England–how did you like that? How, if you don't mind my asking, did you get funding? I have now realized what I probably should have intuited oh, eight years ago…that any sort of loan is definitely not going to get paid off via scrabble and freelance writing in Mexico. Hmmm.

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    South Africa, Sweden, Germany, and Singapore definitely have programs in English. I know the University of Berlin and Uppsala University in Sweden have a series of Master's in English.

  • Eva

    I can vouch for Uppsala, I have a friend who did his Masters there! (In English!)

  • Eva

    Hey Sarah, Yeah, $18,000 is steeper than I had expected! (Though the only Masters I've ever researched in the States recommended we budget $45,000-50,000 for a 10-month program, including living expenses. So I suppose that's my point of comparison!?) As far as Canadian anthro programs go, U of T is always a safe bet (it's pretty much the best at everything, except sports) but University of British Columbia I believe also has a bunch of anthropology programs, some specifically geared towards the Aboriginal history of the Pacific North West. Also lots of Asia-specific programs there, I think. And re: UK, I was going to mention it actually! Again, not cheap, but cheapER for Americans. As a Canadian I probably didn't save any money by going there (though it was nice to do it in one year instead of two — the 12 month MA is still rare here) but the program was exactly what I wanted. A one-year MA tuition runs about 8000 pounds for non-EU students — or about 16,000 USD these days, I guess. Steep? Sure. But for an Ivy League-caliber school? Suddenly looks like a bargain, right? I didn't manage any funding myself (because of the strict regulation of fees for British students, overseas students are viewed as a cash cow, so funding for us is rare) and paid for it through a mixture of loans, savings, and some money my grandparents left me.

  • Eva

    Also, for anyone thinking about Canadian schools, you should know tuition is provincially regulated and varies accordingly! Ontario has been pretty thoroughly de-regulated but (I believe) Quebec and Newfoundland are two examples of provinces where fees are still being kept in check. English-language schools in Quebec include Bishop, Concordia and McGill.

  • Tanya

    Yes, France! I studied there this past spring. Unfortunately for me, it was through my US university so I paid our lovely tuition prices. But otherwise truly an economical place to study. One thing to keep in mind when going overseas: you might not have access to the same high level of services and access to technology and information as you're used to getting in the US. We pay ridiculous prices, but our libraries are well stocked, our computers are numerous and up to date, and our student services are pretty darn good. The library in Paris was shamefully inadequate and I found that it hampered my ability to get info for my thesis. And don't even get me started on student services. But I'd do it all over again in a second. I mean, it was Paris!

  • mynameispepper

    You forgot The Netherlands. As I have recently been looking for colleges, many of these countries came into question, but The Netherlands stood out the most! They have excellent Bachelor and Master programs, check them out!

  • Denise

    Well, I lived in Turkey for 20 years and Universities (Public – though private colleges are known as inadequate) are free. I think student pay a $200 fee for extracurricular activities and medical care and even with that the government gives scholarships to everyone in need. I don't know if anyone has any idea on Turkish Universities but if you are interested check out METU, Hacettepe and Bilkent (Middle East Technical University being the best). Plus almost all their programs are in English. Great list though.

  • Jackie

    I went to Germany for my M.A. degree, partly because it did seem to be a better value than US schools, but anyone going should be prepared for the dramatic difference in the educational systems between the countries. My entire program was taught in German, which was fine, but the teaching styles, expectations, and program structure were so dramatically different (and not necessarily forward-thinking, at least from a US point of view) that in the end, I wish I would have stayed in the States (or gone to Canada). The experience is absolutely worth it and I wouldn't trade it for anything, but anyone looking to go abroad would be well advised not to just go for the bargain price; make sure it's a fit for you in all the ways a grad school needs to fit!

  • emily

    Socialist commie nations are able to provide more affordable education than our so-called free society can. Next thing you know these commie bastards are going to have more jobs and opportunities. I'm so glad I'm not in any of those countries…i'd rather be unemployed and in student loan debt in my own instead.

  • Søren

    Denmark has free graduate school as well. Furthermore, the state pays us 900 euros a month for up to six years when we study. A third of the 900 euros is, however, an optional study loan. Roskilde University, Copenhagen University and a few others have extensive programmes in English (and are well respected universities).

  • sab

    if you look into funding you can go do a Canadian MSc for about $3000 / yr – science departments actually pay you to be smart – not sure about social science depts. also I hear Ireland has free school too

  • Linda

    Wait so free education and job oppertunites are a bad thing? And as a swede I can guarantee we ar not living under some totalitarian "commie bastard"(as you so nicely put it) goverment, in fact our last election put one of our most rightwing parties in charge. I'd rather get stamped as a commie and have free education and job opportunities then live in a country that might force me to personal bankrupcy if I get sick. Apoligies in advance for spellingerrors.

  • AnnaE

    You better hurry if you are interested in studying in Sweden – if the current government has its way, starting next school year non-EU students will have to pay tuition. Oh, and depending on what you studied abroad, you need to also prepare yourself to have your degree evaluated back in the US when you apply for certain jobs.

  • Eva

    "Socialist commie nations are able to provide more affordable education than our so-called free society can." Evidently. None of the countries listed qualify as "socialist commie" nations by any accepted definition of the term. Emily, if you hate the rest of the world so much, I'd be curious to know what drew you to a travel site? (No sarcasm – I'm genuinely wondering?)

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Really good point–also, something I possibly should have mentioned is the research issues one could face studying abroad. Especially studying somewhere like Germany without much working German knowledge. Even if the program is in English, I wonder if one would run into some issues trying to find lots of English language resources. And I remember that when I studied in France I was a little dismayed by the resources as well. On the other hand, though, a lot of U.S grad students are paying for some fairly ridiculous excesses–super-modern dorms and luxurious gyms, sports teams, libraries with hundreds of computers….I remember tuition was raised every year at Madison for such things.

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Thanks for the info–any specific university you'd recommend? And are some programs in English?

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Hey Jackie– This is definitely something that would worry me going abroad. I remember being in full-blown culture shock the first semester in France, as most classes were simply scribbling notes for three hours while the professor went on and on. Exams were basically essays regurgitating what the professor had said. That said, I'd think that master's or doctorate programs might allow for a little more freedom…what program were you in? Was it in the humanities or the sciences? What did you like/dislike most about it?

  • Anna

    Yes, but foreigners on student visas don't qualify for that money. You need to be a Danish resident with a PERMANENT residency stamp to be eligible for the "study" money. Same as in Sweden.

  • Tanya

    I totally agree with that assessment: we pay for some ridiculous excesses. My undergrad univeristy had a climbing wall for goodness' sake! And you wouldn't believe the new cafeteria they built. Totally not necessary. I'd like to see something between the French and US systems. Not so extravagant but with good, solid resources for students. For now, they're both on the extreme ends of the spectrum.

  • Eric

    This is probably not the right place to post this, as it's not experience abroad, but I attend a university in the U.S. for around $2000 a year in fees, and am paid around $15k a year as a teaching / research assistant (Physics). Grad school in the U.S. is affordable, if you look for a school and department that are willing to support. Though this is probably more a function of the subject you are studying than anything else.

  • Cristina

    Add Romania to the list; 3 semesters of Masters (at a state university) cost 450 euros (excluding the dissertation tax which was another 75 euros)

  • Aaron

    I spent a very long time researching where to do my graduate studies, and price was not the only concern. I also looked into faculty experience, quality of the university and programmes, and how many students would be working alongside me. As an American, I decided to take a programme through several universities, getting a joint master degree through the Netherlands, Switzerland and Germany for a total of €2000 per year (a fraction of the $42,000 at Stanford and the £25,000 at Imperial College London) not including my living expenses. However, I had opportunities for full scholarships or assistantships had I have gone to a school instead of a traveling programme, reminding me that I chose this option for my experience, not the money. No amount of money can show the value of a 2 year (at least) experience abroad, the people you meet, and the opportunities that arise from it.

  • Alan

    Uppsala university is drawing my attention. I'll definitely look into it come senior year.

  • Liz

    One thing to bear in mind if you're considering Barcelona is that the official language there is Catalan. Whilst some of the courses may be offered in Spanish, the University of Barcelona's website makes it clear that you would need at least a working knowledge of Catalan to study there.

  • bipolar2

    ** History and Philosophy of Science at the University of Cambridge, England ** Not a mention yet of the History and Philosophy of Science Department at Cambridge. Depending on the College you pick, you should be able to get subsidized housing (a flat) as a post-graduate student. While you might not be admitted directly to a PhD program — probably into a M.Phil. program with its attendant exams at the end of one year, the cost would surely be lower than attending a pricey US program. The PhD program grants you total freedom to get on with your research — no lectures, no exams, no prelims — that is, no stupid permission-to-proceed nonsense like in the US Unlike this country, you are NOT at the mercy of your supervisor! Nor do you have to be a TA! Write the dissertation, submit it, it gets get read by two examiners neither of whom is your supervisor! One examiner is internal to Cambridge; the other is external. If they agree on the merit of your work, you get the degree. The older (and one would hope more mature) you are, the more you'll value the faith placed in you. So, if you haven’t moved from being a student to being a researcher, Cambridge (or Oxford) might not be the best PhD path without doing an M.Phil. to demonstrate your “street creds.” bipolar2 PhD History of Science, Cambridge (1981) PhD Philosophy, Virginia (1975)

  • Jackie

    Sarah, I couldn't agree more! I did my master's at the University of Munich and it was like I'd been cast back into a different century; it was suddenly all about memorization and regurgitation, which was likely the worst part (either that, or the never-ending administrative hoops to jump through). However, you bring up an excellent point that it makes a difference whether you're in the humanities or the sciences (I was in a linguistics program), which likely means very different program and teaching dynamics. The best part was how many doors the experience opened for me. I've now been in Europe, although now in Switzerland, for nearly 8 years, and am a professional German-English translator. By the way, this was an excellent article and a much-needed discussion point in the Internet – thanks for bringing this up!

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    You're right, Eric, it's definitely a function of what you're studying. I think the Humanities are the most competitive at the moment, and the hardest to get funding for. I also think it's a lot easier to get funding for a PhD than for a Masters. I am thinking of applying to several anthropology PhD programs in the U.S, but I'll only be able to go on the condition that I get a T.A position and a full waiver of my tuition. Supposedly, if a school really wants you in its PhD program, it should be helping you to find funding or directly offering it to you. The Masters, though, are where it hurts. And if for some reason your funding runs out in either a Masters or a PhD program (there aren't enough available T.A ships, you don't get a fellowship, etc), you're looking at exorbitant tuition rates.

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    I agree that the experience is crucial, and perhaps irrationally I'm factoring in location as one of the most important factors in choosing a school. However, as I'm now dealing with these ridiculous loans from undergrad (and, compared to other U.S students, mine aren't that bad!) I have to argue that price is almost as important as experience. Especially if one loves living and traveling abroad, and doesn't have really fixed career goals…the last thing I want is to feel tied down and obligated to take a dull, grinding job to pay off debts. I'm now scared of leaving school again and feeling like, well, that was a great experience, but now I'm tied to the system for the next however-many years to pay my dues. I'm not THAT tied at the moment–I can make measly payments in pesos–but there is always that nagging voice worried about loans in the back of my head.

  • emily

    Good grief. Obviously they don't teach "sarcasm" in Sweden, or wherever it is you're from, Eva. I actually used to live in France and in Canada. I wish the US was more like that, because here I have no health insurance and my bf is hundreds of thousands of dollars in debt from student loans. If I get into an accident, I'm financially screwed. I'd give anything to be able to go to grad school for free. Or at least have it be affordable.

  • Ripploh

    Yes, they have complete courses in English. I can't recommend anything yet (since I'm only in the process of applying), but definitely look into Maastricht University, Utrecht University, Breda Hogeskol, Saxion and inHolland.

  • Eva

    Oh, sorry Emily! That was such a bang-on perfect impression of the hundreds of scary ignorant comments I see on the web every day… I assumed it was real!! :D I'm from Canada, by the way.

  • Julie

    Tanya- GREAT point about resources. I began working on a PhD in Puerto Rico and found that the libraries, in particular, were poorly stocked in comparison with the university libraries at my alma maters in the US. In fact, one of the branches of the "state" university didn't even have a library when I lived there. This should definitely be a factor to consider when exploring grad school options abroad. Maybe Sarah will write a follow up about how to choose a grad school abroad now that we have some incredible options from which to choose!

  • Will

    you should notice that the UofT anthro graduate program also says that tuition costs are funded for you.

  • fred

    I studied at inHolland when it was the hogeschool Holland. I got my undergrad there in an English business program. I think that this was during the time that they were just starting to explore international studies programs. They did not have a lot of materials in English, however during each year, more and more resources became available. so it may be wise to see how long each school as had an English speaking component to it. Good luck, studying in Holland was a lot of fun.

  • Kristi

    I am so glad I came upon this article!! What better excuse to travel than dirt-cheap grad school? Awesome, thanks so much!

  • emily

    No Eva no need to be sorry. My comment was really out of line, even if I was trying to make a point about the massive amt of ignorance that goes on in my own country.

  • Jess

    It sounds like you've had a very interesting array of educational experiences. Would you mind sharing more specifics on the international schools and programs you attended or considered attending? After coming back from studying in Prague last spring I've been on an extensive hunt for grad school opportunities abroad and am close to exhausting all of the resources I've found online. Any information would be very much appreciated.

  • Jess

    I've been fascinated by the prospect of living and studying in Eastern and Central Europe since studying in Prague. Do you have any specific information on schools or programs in Romania? Any info would be greatly appreciated!

  • Jules

    its free in norway too, btw.

  • Brad

    Interesting article, and a great resource for those who want to learn more, but aren't sure where their road will take them career wise. There is a trade off for cheaper studies if you plan on becoming an academic. While the countries you mentioned have highly ranked programs for their regions, graduate degrees (especially masters degrees) from abroad don't hold as much weight as those from US schools (Canadian schools are arguably comparable, depending on the program. U of T and UBC have great programs for history and philosophy of science). Being a first year masters student in the field of history and philosophy of science myself, I have met several people with masters degrees from abroad that were admitted only at the masters level in the States. If your goal is a PhD or to become an academic, US schools are probably the way to go. Depending on the size department, PhD students usually receive some financial aid and/or have tuition waived in return for assistantships. Then again, if you aren't sure what you want to be when you grow up (who really does right?) studying abroad is an excellent idea. It will also look good on your resume, especially if you master the local language.

  • Ben

    School isn't free anywhere. You just want someone else to pay the costs. If you duck out on your loans, then you are a thief.

  • Cristina

    I've done my Master's at Aurel Vlaicu University in Arad (where I live) and chose the one wt plenty of courses in English. I also defended my dissertation in English. I would be able to help you more. Do you use twitter? If so follow me @axxyutza and we can exchange email adds and whatnot. Plenty other Univ offer programs in English as well.

  • gladys c hugh

    Referring to South Africa: “The country in and of itself is an education…” Whilst that may make grammatical sense it is an aweful use of the English language. I think whoever wrote this was definately over-charged for their university experience.

  • Eva

    This is another satirical comment, right?

  • Shane

    Also, don't forget that most universities offer intensive language courses for foreign students to get them up to par on their skills so that they may attend regular classes. For example, when I studied in France, I had a Chilean friend who knew nothing about the French language. Yet, within in a couple months he was fully conversational. Of course, a lot rests with the student. One must be willing to make the effort to learn the language and to speak at every opportunity. Shouldn't be too hard considering you'd be surrounded by it.

  • Shane

    I've heard the university of cluj is a good one

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Hey Jess–my educational experiences, at least those related directly to school (there are some other ones I won't go into here…) have actually been fairly mundane. I studied abroad in Aix-en-Provence, France, my junior year of college. After that, the only program I've done has been a TESOL course through the School of International Training; I did that program in Oaxaca. However, I have done a fair amount of research about grad school in the U.S and abroad, and I would say the best thing you can do is start preparing way ahead of time. If you're interested in school in the U.S., you need to start contacting professors, reading books, looking at programs, even visiting schools if you can. At least, this is true for Phd programs…for Masters, I'm not so sure. As for programs abroad, for me, the number one thing to consider is if I want to do a graduate program in Spanish or French. And if not, if there are going to be programs that focus on my interests in English-speaking countries. (My interests being related to Latin America and social-cultural anthropology.) I think it varies tremendously, though, depending on what programs you're looking at…humanities vs. sciences, and what aspect of the humanities. Anthropology and history are going to be programs where location is a much bigger factor–i.e., if you're interested in Latin America, South Africa probably isn't the best bet. Although that seems like quite the "duh" observation now that I've written it. Anybody else out there have more specific advice about programs they've looked at/done?

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Definitely a good point–I remember talking to some of my friends in the PhD program at Madison in the History of Science, and they strongly discouraged me from getting a Master's in Latin American Studies at the UNAM and then returning to the U.S to do a PhD program. They warned me that it would be harder to get accepted to a PhD program with a degree from abroad. Then again, I think most schools prefer that you follow through the entire program–from Masters to PhD–with their department, and are less likely to admit candidates that have done a Masters at a separate school. And yes, I definitely think it's much harder to get an academic post in the U.S if you've studied outside the U.S. Which is something I'm trying to consider before beginning the application process–whether I'm dead set on academia or not.

  • smartguy

    Actually the title of this article is meaningless. The "fraction" could be 1/10 (10% of the cost in the US), it could be 1/1 (same as the cost in the US) or it could be 10/1 (10 times the cost in the US). Why have some meaningless cliche that incorporates math? Just say "7 Countries Where Graduate School costs LESS than in the US".

  • Isabelle

    Bishop, Concordia and McGill are three good universities located in Quebec, Canada and it usually cost around 1,300$ per semester. So you can have a Bachaloréat (is that a degree?) for less then 10,000. Université Laval also offer a less-than-10,000$ diploma, but I THINK (maybe you could get inform if interested) it's only available in french! :)

  • WiffWaff

    I agree, we all have to pay for schooling either directly through fees or by taxes. You just dont want to pay – "the $10,000 of student loans I am evading by living in Oaxaca, Mexico". Why should I pay for you and get no benefit from it, do you understand the meaning of social responsibility. Oh sorry you American, so no then. All for one and all for me.

  • Katie

    I'm an American studying grad school in Taiwan right now (MFA in acting). Granted, my program is in Chinese, but there are many grad programs in Taiwan, especially Taipei, geared toward international students that are run in English (particularly MBA stuff, but also health management & others). Also, studying Chinese in Taiwan is a pretty good deal. Both cost of living and tuition is pretty cheap (ok, not cheap like China, but meals generally cost me around $1.50-$3US), and the government has GREAT scholarships for both language students and grad students if you can get them. The grad student scholarships are easier to get than the language course ones, and some of them cover the entire cost of living & studying in Taiwan. You could even make a little profit off the monthly stipend if you budgeted yourself. Taiwan's schools are not super-famous, but it's safe, modern, a great place to stay if you're interested in learning more about Taiwan. And it does have some decent schools, National Taiwan University being foremost among them. My personal experience here has been good so far. I probably won't be heading back to the states after getting my degree, so I'm not too worried about whether or not I'll be able to apply for a PhD program there, but that might be something to think about if you're planning on furthering your academic career in your home country.

  • Sriram Venkitachalam

    Surprised India isn't on your list. India has some of the best business schools in the world in its IIMs. Perhaps some of the most competitive business schools. I doubt it would cost more than $2000.

  • Lisa

    Yes, you might want to update your post – free university for foreigners in Sweden ends in 2010. And counter to one of these comments, Denmark ended in 2004 or 2005. There are two other countries that still have this – I think one is Norway? – the other, Finland or Iceland.

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    The comment about social responsibility and Americans is completely out of left field and unjustified. Sweeping generalizations like this, with absolutely zero support or explanation whatsoever, do not give any credibility to your comments. Also, I'm surprised to see that someone who has created an account on a site like Matador could demonstrate the belief that all people of a particular nationality are the same. However, I do apologize if my flippant remark about evading student loans gives the impression that I am somehow a "thief" or am "ducking out" on loans. I have previously deferred loans, which is perfectly common and legal and does not imply that anyone else is footing the bill for my education. My point in discussing my experience was that undergraduate education in the United States is extremely, sometimes prohibitively expensive. I will be paying off my loans for the next decade. I think that it is entirely reasonable, and logical, to look for places where higher education is not going to leave one indebted for years. This is not the same thing as looking for a free ride. Also, if you will notice the article title and read about the majority of places I have listed, you will notice that this article is not about getting an entirely free education. It is about getting an affordable education, and being able to study without having to be either wealthy or indebted for years.

  • Claudia

    a great post in a good moment! i was just thinking earlier what I was going to do finishing this year. Are there any experiences on science masters? Most of what has been said is about linguistics programs.

  • Derek

    i get paid $26,345 to go to grad school :) also, taxes in those countries are astonomical

  • pegrep

    University of the West Indies offers a limited range of graduate degrees, but guarantees TA positions which cover your tution. I supervised a three hour lab and marked 10 to 15 papers/reports once a week with one or two other grad students, and that is about average. Campuses in Barbados, Trinidad and Jamaica are worth a look if you want a good school relatively close to the US in English speaking countries. Some research would be necessary to find the place most suited to your lifestyle though.

  • Naomi

    in France, the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris is technically not considered a University, it's an Ecole which is very different to a University since the cost isn't the usual french University price of 190€ but is a lot more similar to other universities such as in the UK.

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Hi Naomi, I must have gotten the wrong information, then, because the website below identified the tuition for international graduate students as 190 Euros. Do you have an idea of what the tuition actually is? Also, could you explain a bit more about the difference between ecoles and universities? ” target=”_blank”>http://www.topuniversities.com/gradschool/schools…

  • James Herrick

    Or just go to an American graduate school in the sciences, and have your tuition paid plus a stipend. Now that's cheap.

  • Eric

    They actually have more than 1350 Masters level programmas in English. Have a look here: ” target=”_blank”>http://www.studyin.nl

  • Cat Schwamm

    All it took was 54 words for me to fall in love with you. Let me come to Mexico to spoil you rotten. (that'd be your bio, scout. and yes, i mean it <3)

  • Federico

    Almost every country in the world has cheaper education than the US or the Uk … but Harvard, Cambridge, Oxford, MIT, Yale,UCLA, U of Chicago etc … are better, in some cases MUCH better than other options mentioned. There isn´t one single Uni in Spain that is ranked in the 100 first according to the Shanghai Jiao Tong university ranking. Obviously if you want to study french studies, well maybe the best option will be France. From all the suggestions above, Singapore, France, Netherlands and Germany are truly great opportunities to study in one great uni … not one of the best (top 20). If you suggest Bermuda and Jamaica why not coming to South America, come to Colombia, Ecuador, Argentina, Chile … all unis are much more cheaper than US unis … and for the living expenses don´t worry, you could achieve a great life quality … but then forget of working in a six figure job … It all goes down to what do you want to achieve in life …. and Uni isn´t the only thing tha affects your life, but it sure is one important thing.

  • Girl Kills Santa

    Seriously? My wife is paying $860 for a 3 credit graduate class in Florida. This is insane.

  • THT

    Have you look how they rank those universities? Link: ” target=”_blank”>http://www.arwu.org/rank2008/ARWU2008Methodology(… It more or less give big universities that focus on Physics, Chemistry, Medicine and Economics/Mathematics a big advantage. I am not saying that the universities that you have listed are not good, they probably are with the reputation they have. But you can get very good education form other universities around the world also.

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Yes, but that is one class, right? One three credit class that costs the equivalent of a year's tuition for a PhD program in many places. I'm wondering how much an entire two year Master's program or seven year PhD program would cost? At the schools I'm looking at, tuition (for out of state students) comes in at well over $10,000, and often well over $20,000, a year.

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Definitely a good point–but I can't list all of them in one article! I did a lot of research and it was really difficult to narrow it down, but I tried to choose schools with pretty solid reputations and with affordable tuition. I also tried to search for programs in English, since I know there are not many people who are so proficient in a foreign language as to be able to do a PhD program in it.

  • C-G

    Note that Universidad Autónoma de México is totally diferent to Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. It's like if you said: Harvard (MIT).

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Thank you, my bad! I absolutely should've checked that out. UAM is a completely separate university. Sorry for the slip up!

  • C-G

    So you're at Oaxaca, Mexico. Maybe you could tell us about the academic crisis in Oaxaca where teachers are in strike (seems like all the time). It's just an idea =)

  • travel

    seven amazing opportunities across the globe those who looking higher education.Great articles on other education! Quality education for reasonable prices…it's up to you if you want to try this

  • might

    maybe you can write a continuation article to make up to those foreign countries feeling left out and give me some more options! also, what about applying to these places, what are their entrance exams, how hard is it to get into these countries to study, etc…? regardless, i was just starting to look into this topic, so thank you so much for the catalyst!

  • Fata

    Hey Sarah! Did you happen to see any information about Universities, for Masters programs in the Middle East. I'm interested in obtaining a masters within the International Affairs sector, but also interested in studying Arabic. I think it would be a great combo. I'm at the beginning stages of my research. If you have any cool pointers I'd really appreciate it and forever like you:) anyone with info feel free to reply.thanks

  • Edwinolina

    I wish you would pony up and pay your student loans. It took me 10 years to pay off my 17K of student loans – I did it, and so should you. The money you pay back is cycled into the system to offer to new students. You used the money…you need to pay it back. I'm just saying. Did you think you were getting the money for free? No….the mandatory meetings that students have to attend before signing up for loans make that clear. If you made a decision that your education was worth getting into debt for, you need to pay off that debt.

  • Edwinolina

    Oh…didn't realize you were being 'flippant'. So that means you do intend to pay off your student loans…good!

  • Fata

    Hey Sarah! Did you happen to see any information about Universities, for Masters programs in the Middle East. I'm interested in obtaining a masters within the International Affairs sector, but also interested in studying Arabic. I think it would be a great combo. I'm at the beginning stages of my research. If you have any cool pointers I'd really appreciate it and forever like you:) anyone with info feel free to reply.thanks

  • Sarah_Menkedick

    Hey Fata–off the top of my head I can't identify any particular programs in the Middle East, but if you check out the sites I linked to at the end of the article, they should help you out! They give a listing of schools by region and describe the programs offered by each school.

  • Flosse R

    While I agree with all of the above locations, why was finland left out? considering that taking a masters degree here is nearly free, even for foreigners ( i know, I am one :)). We have a huge amount of foreigners here and the schooling system is well on par with germany, which i really don't like (I am german). Otherwise very good resource well written…

  • stephen elaigwu

    Gooday,i would like to find out what the level grade is for masters programme in political science and international studies in south africa and in sweden,please email me the information thankyou.

  • Jade

    too late for me, but it's nice to know there are places in the world where you can go to grad school without spending those years subsisting on Ramen noodles and off-label bags of cheese puffs.

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  • http://hitchedhiker.com Abhilash

    You forgot to mention India. Our institutes of Science, Technology and Management are one of the best in the world.

  • Priscila

    you forgot Brazil. most of the best universities of the country are free.

  • Scottish

    There are no tuition fees in Scottish unis. Unless you’re English.

  • katie

    College in France is VERY different than it is in the U.S., at least for now. Universities run on a five or six year schedule of courses, the first 3 being comparable to our undergrad, while continuing on is like going to grad school here, only you can stop at four years and it would still count as something. You don’t really graduate university, you just finish the year and that counts, for example you could write bac + 2 if you completed high school, the baccalaureat plus two years at university. Ecoles are a totally different beast. The Grands Ecoles as they are known are kind of like super Ivy league schools here. You usually have to have a year of prep before you can apply and it is extremely difficult to win a place. Almost all of France’s presidents went to the Ecole Administratif, for example. Saying to readers then that you can feasibly go to this Ecole is probably not great unless they are brilliant and want to prepare for a year ahead of time, you should recommend other univerisities in France, I went to Universite Montpellier III (a liberal arts university, while I and II are more for law and sciences) and there was only a registration fee of a few hundred euros and no books can legally be required of you to buy at French universities.

  • Shubha

    i’m planning to do my masters degree in advertising. The best schools either lie in the US or UK. these are unbelivably expensive. could anyone suggest a more affordable country? The medium of my instruction has been english, so that automatically rules out France, Sweden, Germany, and many other countries where language is a barrier, and the medium is generally the national language.

  • http://blog.heatherstein.net Heather

    McGill and Concordia both offer graduate programs in English – and Montreal is notoriously inexpensive as far as living expenses go. Apartments are frequently on $350/month. Ranked among the top Universities in the world, going to McGill offers an American a great education in an inexpensive city with highly reduced travel expenses – Amtrak lines and frequent buses make getting home a breeze.
    AND you have an opportunity to hone your French skills… but Montreal is very bilingual and nothing to be afraid of.

  • Carol

    Thanks so much for the great resource! Although there are straight to the point websites out there, your blog is a great tap of reassurance. Im tired of paying for education in the US, I have been out of school for 6 years and am still only paying my interest back at $200 per month. Contrary to what people may think…its very hard to get into the top 100 schools here and incredibly expensive. Most of us do not end up going to a top 100 and still pay more than $40,000 for a program. Going to Spain or Sweden, you get a better education for a fraction of the cost, so its a much better value when you consider the academics. Now that there are no jobs here in the US and unemployment only keeps rising, its time for us to go abroad and receive a more well-rounded and global experience.

    On education in Sweden, I’ve read that they have extended free education for another year, is this true that you know of? Also, what are the requirements like to get into some of these schools? Thats one thing Im finding tough to research…I just want to know if Im a good candidate before I waste my time on applications, etc. I’ve tried emailing the schools directly with my questions but they must be on break as I have not heard back. What are some of you experiences on admissions or perhaps those of other posters? Any info would be really helpful. Thanks.

  • http://www.rentinaix.com Alex

    I must say thank you for this wonderful post but what I really would like to say is for all the people who keep saying just pay off your loans its not so bad. I would like to comment on the person who said it took you 10 years to pay off your 17k dollar loans and it was not such a big deal. Well I have to pay back 125k dollars + interest. That would take you over a lifetime to pay dear sir. Is that not a big deal? unfortunately the problem with the educational system in the USA is that most people do not really get what they pay for. If you can get a good education for next to nothing in Europe or Asia, there is absolutely no reason why it should cost $20,000 for the same exact education in the USA. Another thing that I would like to say is to the people that think that the money just gets put back into the system for others to use. If there was no profit in giving student loans then believe me there would not be any student loans. These loans are made for profits more than anything else.

  • http://londoniscool.com William Wallace

    Fuck student loans avoid them for ever if you can, they are designed to screw the working classes.

  • WJB

    Fantastic article! Thanks for all the great information, Sarah.

  • pm

    US student loans are a terrible, terrible scam that are destroying the morale of whole generations of young Americans. Our federal government, which according to the constitution is supposed to lookout for the “general welfare” of the people of this country, instead allows banks to screw the middle class out of existence. Student loans for nearly worthless degrees at insanely inflated prices when there are no jobs (or slave jobs)? Credit cards for students with no income and massive student loan debt? Home loans with no down payment, no income verification, no credit check, etc.? ALL SCAMS! They KNOW people can’t pay these loans, and they DON’T CARE, because if/when you default on your student loan the federal government pays the bank immediately; if you default on your credit cards, they know your parents are likely to help you out “to save your credit”; if/when you default on your home loan, they just take your house and sell it. In all cases, you will have “bad credit” for at least the next 7-10 years. AND THAT’S GOOD FOR THE BANKS, because then they can charge you MUCH HIGHER INTEREST RATES if you need another loan!

    Horrible. This kind of thing just didn’t happen to American citizens 50 years ago. Back then college was cheap or free (yeah, yeah – I know – it was subsidized by taxes – but for good cause!). Credit cards were extremely hard to get. Home loans required a good job, good credit, and at least 20% down payment.

    Personal responsibility? NONSENSE! How ’bout the banks take some responsibility for making bad loans? They have no risk! Risk-free profits! This is capitalism? I don’t think so! This is gangsterism. If students were allowed to discharge student loans in bankruptcy, banks would have to be more responsible in who they give student loans to, and for what purpose (engineering/nursing, etc. or liberal arts/basket weaving? Good school or bad? Good student or bad? Good job prospects or bad?) For them, it’s win-win – for us, it’s lose-lose. Banks make HUGE profits regardless of whether we pay our loans. If we can’t pay, the government pays the banks and then raises taxes (and inflation) on us. The great American middle class is slaving away at horrible jobs trying to dutifully pay back these fraudulent loans while big bankers pay themselves HUNDREDS OF MILLIONS OF DOLLARS EVERY YEAR in salary and bonuses. Oh, that leaves plenty of money to bribe their cronies in congress to keep the horrible laws that let them screw us like this.

    • http://www.theMadBagLady.wordpress.com/ Ms. M.

      Very true! Problem is, Americans are so brainwashed. It was the wealthy who paid higher taxes percentage-wise back in the 1950s. But they were still wealthy. It didn’t hurt them to pay higher taxes. I mean, we still had millionaires in those days. The difference was that we didn’t have the extreme division between the rich and the poor–this obscene hoarding of wealth on the part of a few while everyone else struggles.

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  • http://rickdelong.com Rick DeLong

    What about Russia? Grad school for foreigners there costs $2000-6000 per year depending on the city and school. Universities in Moscow, St. Petersburg, and other large cities have excellent programs in many areas. The Soviet education system was (mostly) excellent.

    Same is true to a large degree of Ukraine.

  • jeanne

    Does anyone know about how health insurance works for American graduate students studying abroad? Especially if you attend a school in UK or France? Are things like dental and vision covered as a graduate student? Also would it cost an arm and leg to get braces in the UK or France as a 28 year old grad student from the US?

  • adam

    Maybe they just need to teach cost benefit analysis in High School. If the Grad degree doesn’t put you in a position to earn enough to pay back the loan, they you shouldn’t get that degree, and you probably shouldn’t go into that field if it pays that poorly. A real career in the first world makes $10k an easily managed debt.

    PS: You do realize that by dodging that debt, you pass the cost on to taxpaying American citizens right? You’re welcome. Please pay it forward.

  • http://www.expatheather.com Heather Carreiro

    Great article Sarah. I spent most of last year researching grad school, first PhDs in Anthro/Middle Eastern Studies. I finally realized with the overproduction of PhDs and competition for academic jobs it wasn’t really worth living on a student budget for another 10 years. Then I looked into Master’s programs in journalism, and finally realized that a journalism degree is a red flag for several countries I’d like to live in the future, and that I may be refused a visa or work permit if I am labelled as a journalist. Then I looked in MFAs and found that acceptance rates for many of the best programs are a low as, or even lower than, Harvard’s graduate school. Aside from that the application process is time consuming, and the program I was most interested in offered little to no funding and I’d be $40k in the hole.

    After months of obsessive research, I decided to go with an MA in English at a local state college. My husband is studying in the area, and I had three years to work with, so I figured I’d move up on the teaching pay scale and get a solid background in the field.

    As for PhD programs, if people want to teach at university level in the you pretty much need to do a US or UK program and go for a top 20 program. Tenure track positions are decreasing and job competition is fierce, so I decided a PhD was too much of a gamble.

  • Tom

    Pedantic. All words come to mean something else at some point in their existence. Slang is and always has been used and no doubt there have always been people such as your good self moaning about their misuse.

    A fraction could mean 1/1 but there are a greater number of fractions of 1 that can be used so let’s go with the majority shall we?

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  • Beth

    Tom: The implication of the title is correct. Yes, 1/1 is a fraction, but it’s not a fraction of the cost. Her use of fraction as a small portion of something is in the dictionary. Check it.

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  • http://www.apres-shred.com Elaina

    I’d have to say Denmark is better than Sweden because not only do they both offer free tuition, but now there are FREE BOOKS too! Also, if you’re a Danish Citizen they bribe you with money! =)

  • http://jessdoesstuff.blogspot.com Jess

    Great article.I’ve just found this, and had been considering grad school abroad for a while (I’m Canadian, but also have an Irish citizenship – helpful!). This is a great concentration of links that I’ll have to check out, including the commenters! (Minus the ones going on about debt. Ugh.) I’m currently waiting to hear back from Canadian grad schools re: acceptances, but if that doesn’t work out I might try again next year… but outside of the country ONLY.

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  • http://ditto robt Martin

    how do I start a grad school in Canada and England?

  • Jerry Singer

    How do i start a Graduate school in sweeden? or Get a work to do there? I am a Nigeria with a Graduate degree in International Law and Diplomacy.

    • Syed Itrat

      I m frm BANGLADESH,i m 44+ at age.As u know that we r a poor country and i can’t continue my studies above 12class (higher secondry school certificate) that was 24 years back due to the death of my father,cause i m the eldest and then i have to take charge of my family.Now,i wanted to start study again,but in our country to be graduate (BBA)it took 4years and that is to long for me,besides this i want to study abroad and want to do job also.Could u pls suggest me which institution and country is good for me,r they addmit me after such a big (24Yrs)gap.Pls snd me email.Waiting eagerly for your prompt reply.

  • Carl-Johan

    Hmm, well the Sweden part is pretty incorrect. There a lot of universities in Sweden that support English students. Not just from the Masters, also before that.

    Otherwise great article!

  • Tony

    I went to the University of Singapore’s website. The Masters in Psychology costs about $22,000 per year (in American dollars). It is not as expensive as similar masters programs here in America, but it is not that much cheaper.

    See Fee section in link below.

  • Whitney

    Excellent. Thank you for taking the time to write that. I totally could relate to the beginning statements of feeling like my undergraduate degree may not have been worth it while sitting at a thankless job in a bad economy and staring down the hallway of doom filled with all my loans.
    Have been researching for almost a year now, and hadn’t come across any of that info.
    Very well-written and very helpful!

  • http://matadornetwork.com catherine tschida

    I have been trying to figure out how exactly to go about applying to UNAM for a masters degree in Latin American Studies, but I can’t get a response from the university. Have emailed professors several times, but have yet to receive a reply. The web page for UNAM is fairly difficult to navigate. Any suggestions?

  • Sara

    I am wondering if these schools are only so affordable for the natives. I would think being an international student, the fee for attending graduate school abroad would match up.

    • Tyler

      @Sara, Everybody is treated equally in France! no matter you’re French student or not! check this out : http://www.campusfrance.org

    • Lucio

      No. Studying in UNAM is just a little more expensive (like extra 200USD per semester) and trust me, once you know the Campus you will fall in love… is a BEAST. Just pass the exam and bingo you are in,

  • TJ

    I am currently in this position. I attend a university in Spain. I think this might help some of the naysayers.

    There is one thing that makes Spain and France specifically lucrative. The program is only one year long. You are paying as much as you would in living cost and tuition as you would for one year of a masters degree in state. However, you cut your school time by a year, in some cases 2 years. The grade conversion works out well for the GPA as well. For example, Spain grades range from 0-10. You don’t pass if you get below a 6 and that converted to the US standard is a B-.
    Plus, part of the requirement is that you take an internship. So, you’re really just working in Europe for 6 months and attending classes for 6. Also, they post your text books for free.

    You can attend a top rated world school for the price of a local university. (You should really check with the world ranking to verify that your university is actually better than your local university.) In summation, you get to travel, better yourself, and gain work experience for the same cost.

    So, to be honest, I don’t see why not. Especially if you are planning to go back and pursue a PHD, JD, or Med School PHD. You get the GPA benefit in your favor and get to practice and improve a second or third language (in my case, I’ve not gone to school in Spanish since I was in high school {also, native english speaker}).

  • Saanvi

    Great informative article. Can anyone believe that a government school runs at a graveyard? But it is a fact..

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  • Guilherme

    Not to mention that the University of Sao Paolo is free. As all public Universities here in Brazil. How the hell you guys pay for public school? Very confusing.

    • Cricket

      “How the hell you guys pay for public school?”

      …..uh…good point.. (never really thought about it that way before :)

      • Alex

        I am from Brazil. Yes, 95% of the top universities in Brazil are public and free. This does not mean an ideal world. These scholls are all filled with rich people, who have access to private schools when they are young, which are the total opposite from the universities scenario.

        Just to sum up: free undergraduate/graduate schools is not “the solution”. It goes WAY beyond that.

        • Alli

          Your jumping the gun just a little bit arn’t you? Free public higher education is definitely a good start, but I wouldn’t knock the whole idea down just because it doesn’t save the world. I don’t see the market for private universities changing in the US anytime soon, rich parents are still going to want to send their kids to Princeton over the public university.

          Feel free to explain “the solution” to whatever problem your speaking of in one of your own Matador blogs one day :)

  • Surellin

    Holy cow, that picture at the top is Ann Althouse, the noted blogger, back in law school.What are the odds that I would be looking at her blog and then immediately find this article?

    • Heather Carreiro

      That is pretty strange!

  • fdavis

    Stellenbosch University (in Stellenbosch, Western Cape) and Rhodes University (Grahamstown, Eastern Cape) are two noteworthy institutions in South Africa.

    Stellenbosch was a traditionally Afrikaans University until 1994 is now a very much part of the continuous change in SA. The town is seriously worth a visit even if you’re not staying for studies!

    Rhodes has a long and illustrious history with many links to overseas Ivy League tertiary institutes.

    Plus SA is one of the most vibrant, contrasting and beautiful places in the world.

  • Alyssa

    But dont you have to be a resident of these places to qualify for these prices?

    Also, like for schoolds in Seden, yes tuition for international students is free but cost of living is not included nor are you paid by the school meaning you have to get a second job to keep yourself afloat.

    If you are in science and are going to grad school in the US they pay you and take care of the tuition! 

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Audrey-Desir-Donovan/100001666795925 Audrey Desir Donovan

    Hi. Thanks for all that great news! I guess the next question is how to support yourself in one of these countries and how to get a student visa. I am in Turkey right now trying to evade $60,000 in student loan debt! I am looking for a good Anthropology graduate program that won’t cost me my first born, in a country where I can actually earn enough to survive at the same time, where I will also be able to obtain a student visa without showing 20K in the bank first. What a headache.

    Just to update this post: Sweden is now closing their free education to non-EU or non EEA-citizens. That means no Americans. So, everyone, scratch Sweden off your list.

    Do you know anything about student visa requirements in these countries or living standards (meaning can I actually work my way through college in Mexico, etc. )

    Oh, what I wouldn’t give to have a rich daddy right now! The crime is that I can get welfare and food stamps if I am poor. I can get free health care if I am super poor (like medicaid). But at the ROOT of the problem, I cannot get a decent education which would PREVENT all these things unless I somehow have money to start with. Wouldn’t it make more sense to spend federal dollars on free education rather than free assistance for those who fall through the cracks because they cannot get a decent job due to poor or no education?

    • Alli

      “Wouldn’t it make more sense to spend federal dollars on free education
      rather than free assistance for those who fall through the cracks
      because they cannot get a decent job due to poor or no education?”

      I wish more people made sense like this.

    • Anonymous

      I think the issue is much more complex than that. Like, the quality of training and choice of field. As American youth, we’ve been lied to that we should follow our “passions.” Unfortunately, most American youths’ passions seem to revolve around the easier subjects such as history, English, or psychology which simply don’t provide marketable skills that set the degree holder apart. And students that pursue more difficult degrees get punished with schedules that make it impossible to hold a job (so it’s limited to the already well-off even more so!) and grades that make it impossible to be proud of yourself.
      However, these issues aren’t worth comparing to poor people. I think the concept of “poverty” in the US need reevaluated. If you live in a 700,000$ home and are requesting food stamps–really? Give me a break. Or, if you drive a 2011 vehicle and your kid needs Medicaid…c’mon now. Anyway. I’m living in the Czech Republic, so, I know how this goes. Good luck on your search. Eastern/Central Europe has affordable schools and living in CR is really cheap in terms of housing and public transportation costs.

      • Kathleen

        I make about $200,000 a year as a clinical psychologist. Not all doctorates are worthless.

        • Alshaju

          well wouldnt you mind helping who havent got an undergrad yet?? rofl

        • http://www.theMadBagLady.wordpress.com/ Ms. M.

          Yes, and also the amount of money one earns doesn’t determine the worth of a degree either. Intelligence, knowledge, education are vital to our society–regardless of whether anyone earns a lot of money after obtaining them.

          Why do Americans worship money so much! I’d much rather be around highly intelligent, thoughtful, compassionate and creative people who are financially poor than a bunch of shallow, superficial, mindless, selfish brutes who have a lot of money.

      • English Grad Student

        Sir, I am a graduate student in English and I am PAID to attend graduate school. Yes. In addition to having my tuition waived I get paid to teach two sections–not only am I earning a degree I am also getting job experience teaching college-level classes. How many of the programs mentioned above PAY YOU to go to school? 

        If you pay your dues as an undergraduate and work hard on your GRE you shouldn’t have to worry about paying for your graduate degree. Generally TAships and GAships are given to students in the sciences, but not always (as you can see in my case).

        • Bobati

          At what point do you find out that you will get paid to go to school? Would you know as soon as you get admitted or would you have to take a few courses first?

        • Peter

          This is very rare. You are lucky.

      • aex chavez

        You think a graduate program in history is easy….. lol

      • http://www.theMadBagLady.wordpress.com/ Ms. M.

        History, English and psychology are “easier subjects”? Any subject is difficult if you put work into learning it and is especially difficult if it isn’t suited to you. The liberal arts are extremely necessary to a democratic society–why they’re being disparaged right now. Liberal Arts majors, with their knowledge of history and human nature are the first people to stand up against tyranny. They’re also the people who can envision ways to create a better society because they have an understanding of how societies are formed/destroyed. Some engineer who interacts with a computer and a bunch of numbers all day may have no understanding of how people interact w/each other, how we get along, what it takes to get large groups of people to get along and to form a better world.

      • Pollitrolli

        Whoa whoa whoa! I’ve never known anyone to live in a $700k home that requested food stamps. Where are you getting these numbers?

    • Razberry_1

      I think you are delusional if you seriously believe evading a debt YOU OWE is justifiable in any way. Also, your internet-based evangelistic atheism is childish and makes you look as though you wasted that 60K$ of education you are avoiding paying back.

      PS. I’m a Christian so please feel free to hate me too.   :)

      • Sexycindy532

        You sound ridiculous. Apparently you never went to college you dumb “christian”. By the way, of course you’re being judgmental about something that you don’t understand typical. 

      • Whatthewho

        You have anger issues that need dealing with; just don’t use a gun on other people to deal with them, like those other losers out there that can’t just shoot themselves without killing other innocent people.

      • Jojo

        Don’t judge students who have thousands in loans! Capitalism is at the root of the problem! There are old systems in place that are harming students, and etc!

  • TONY


    • http://twitter.com/agoico Alexandra G

      That article was written in 2009

  • http://twitter.com/agoico Alexandra G

    FYI: Going to the university in Sweden is not free anymore as of fall 2011, unless you are from a EU country.

  • EP

    This is so useful! And for Audrey, I know that in France if you have a student visa, you can work part time in the school year and full time in the summer. 

    My question is, is it really the same price for international students as the price for actual citizens of the country?

  • http://twitter.com/BombayTalkies Melissa

    Great piece!  I just wanted to say that there’s no such thing as the “University of Berlin.”  There’s the Freie Universitat Berlin, which offers a pretty large selection of grad programs in English.  Berlin’s other large university is Humboldt University.

  • http://www.facebook.com/people/Mark-Darcy/1400612390 Mark Darcy

    Information on Singapore is wildly incorrect!  Your article states that the cost is $4,000 for international students for doctoral degrees.  Not even close!  The NUS web site states clearly that the cost for international students is 15,000 SGD or 12,000+ USD  – PER YEAR of your multi-year program.  The 4,000 rate is for subsidized programs for Singapore citizens — only!  Please update your article.

    • http://MsBehaved.Com/ Bianca James

      Ditto University of Uppsala- International Tuition is much more expensive than the local rate.

    • http://twitter.com/VoteSuperJunior SuJu-Global-ELFs.com

      I agree.

    • miamiroc

      I agree that it is at least double that for a graduate degree in economics as I plan to pursue. However, permanent residency would cut my costs to approx. $8,000. The trick is working in Singapore for at least 6 months and applying for permanent residency. The costs are similar to that of a citizen. It is still relatively cheap but should be explained in detail.

    • Dioraviator

       he’s right, i found the same on their page.

  • Guest

    As a US citizen, I completed a Master’s degree in Spain for really cheap. The degree probably wouldn’t have gotten me very far living there (it was deemed specifically by the university for Americans), but I had the credits converted by a US agency when I returned. Did the trick in helping me obtain a higher paying job in the field. Now I am looking for similar PhD programs. Suggestions welcome!

    • Zcruz

      How much was cheap? 2,000 as the article said or something different? And which university did you attend? 

  • Liammclean

    You forgot Scotland where uni tuition is also free to Scottish residents

  • Brockmprice

    In France now and paying 450 euro total for a business masters program (in English) and one year of health insurance (under 28 yrs).

    • EP

      How fantastic! Which school are you at?

    • Nitin

      In which university are you studying Brockmprice

    • Jan

      hey please what is the name of the school?

  • Dukecitythompson

    You do know that you can get on the IBR (Income based repayment) and only pay a certain amount based on your income, don’t you? You can also go to grad school and defer your payments until you get an advanced degree and can pay for your debts. As a soon-to-graduate undergrad student, I’m not scared of my $20k in loans because I can get on the IBR and pay $14/mo if my income doesn’t go up. After 20 years they cancel the rest, so that’s $3,000 (if my income doesn’t increase). That seems a lot more reasonable than hiding in a foreign country over a measly $10k in debt (some people graduate with $100k+). Didn’t everyone sign the terms of their loans the same as I did? What happened to individual responsibility? You borrow it, you pay it…you don’t have it, ask for an economic hardship deferment. If you aren’t experiencing financial hardship, then don’t run away from your responsibilities.

  • http://twitter.com/rYduckz Duckwitz

    Don’t forget about Austria! I’m only paying  380 euro’s per semester which equates to $525.00 U.S. dollars.  This is for a Masters program in Strategic Management at the University of Innsbruck and it’s taught in English! #Awesome.

     From what I’ve seen so far, even German students head to Austrian Universities for lower costs and a less stringent acceptance rate. 

  • RSDRJ9Y5W1Q1

    Well, in 1 German State called north Rhine Westphalia, the authorities from this semester ( Winter 2011 ) have removed all tuition fees from all the public universities. I am not so sure about the other German states.But the cost of living factor might come onto contention if you want to study here.

    In any case, their standards of education are high.

  • SGS

    I don’t think that the author properly researched these institutions. Yes, education is free in Sweden, but for Swedes/EU nationals. Americans (or anyone else for that matter) pays for their education. While I admit that it would cheaper than studying in the States, it’s incorrect to say that it is free.

    Also, was research done on the types of job placements that students with degrees from these schools get in the U.S.? That should have been included in the article. I’m all for not paying ridiculous amounts for education, but I’m not willing to risk my future employers not knowing about my school, and thus not getting a job. Some university degrees, regardless of how prestigious the institution is, are not recognised by the U.S., hence so many engineers and doctors from Africa/Eastern Europe driving cabs in the U.S. One should also remember that not every degree is equal, especially in this country. Thoroughly research your school before applying, unless, of course, you just want to live somewhere for a year really cheaply and learn a new language/find a husband/wife in the process.

    All the same, it was a nice effort. And just to fan off future comments, I’m not American, and I will be getting my PhD in Europe, if I can help it.

  • John

    In Brazil, the best universities are the state ones – and they are totally free! Such as University of São Paulo, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and many many others. And they are pretty good, also…

  • Forestrigby

    Strange because Singapore’s fees are absolutely nothing like that, excluding a few select science and engineering based degrees…

  • Mados

    If you happen to be a citizen of one of the Scandinavian countries where the State subsidises education, then you can take the subsidy with you for your studies abroad.  So Scandinavians can study in the US for free or very cheap with tuition fee and living costs sponsored by the state of their home country. 

    Ps. I don’t know if above is the case for ALL of the Scandinavian countries. I know it is for Denmark and I think at least Sweden, and probably also Norway. I don’t know about Iceland, Foroya and Finland, but I would not be surprised if that was the case.

  • Raiyans

    Thanks alot for the info!!

  • Alice

    Hey so I’m looking to study in Spain or France next year as my frist year of undergradute college, I really appreciate your article but i was wondering if these costs you’ve posted are for people of the european union or foriengers as well? Also if the classes are taught in english or the native language of that country. My french friend sitting next to me wantas to write that he is pretty convinced there is an extra charge for americans. Thanks for all the help!

  • Pakazeenelaboif

    This article deserves an A+!
    I got into a graduate school in vermont, but could not go because of the extreme cost of tuition. After passing up Vermont I had a baby, but still long for higher education and travel. Therefore I went out on a limb and began researching cheap graduate programs and came across this article. I feel as if there is hope!!! Thank you Sarah!!!

  • Pakazeenelaboif

    I think Audrey has a valid point.

  • Thomas Matthew Hamilton

    A good destination that I would add to this list would be Switzerland. The University of Geneva, IHEID (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies), ETH Zurich, University of Zurich, etc etc. all offer quality programs, many of which can be done in English. The program fees for a Masters vary from $500-2,500 a semester. Likewise, after a 6-month period, you are entitled to work 20-hours a week during the semester and 40 during the summer and winter holidays. Given that Starbucks pays the equivalent of $25/hour, this is more than enough to support yourself while studying!! (just keep in mind that speaking French or German well will be necessary for most jobs, though being a native English speaker can give you a leg up in many of the multinationals operating in Switzerland).

    All in all, Switzerland is an excellent value. There are, however, some caveats of course. You will have to adjust to the way things are done here. The “customers-always-right” attitude that often appears in American private universities is not present here. In my experience, I’ve found professors are also less available to students than in the States.

    If you’re looking to tick the “Masters degree required” box for a job, I highly recommend Switzerland as a good value destination.

  • Anonymous

    Thank you so much for posting this!  I need to go back to school, but simply can’t afford any of the programs in my field in the US.  I tried looking in Canada, but they didn’t have what I need….just now finished searching a bunch of Australian universities, a few promising programs for me there.  Now I was just scratching my head, wondering where else to look – and you’ve just cut down the work for me a lot with your suggestions :-)

  • http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id=504892380 Randy Jaden Vidales

    This is something I have been considering for a while…, though I assume your grades have to be great to even be considered for graduate school here or abroad.

  • Aggy

    In Canada, you get paid around $20,000/year in Grad School. Tuition is around $6,500 or so, so I’m making enough to cover my living expenses with a bit extra. I’m going to graduate debt-free!

  • Alekij

    First of all. I liked your article, it seems thought through and is good to read.
    I’m sorry to correct you, but tuition in Germay is double of what you wrote. The 100-500 Euros (acutally it’s 42 – 542€) are for 1 semester, so the year comes to roughly 100 – 1100 Euros.There are, btw. lots of scholarships and stuff, that can help you support yourself. If you wanna know more, just write an eMail to someone at a german university, they all habe someone responsible for foreign students, who will be glad to help you.
    For example: The adress of famous LMU in Munich would be zulassung.international@lmu.de .
    Well so long and good luck.


  • Maude

    Well that’s not the truth for Germany… I just checked the web site and one program and it cost 8000 euros for a year…. please tell me where you found the 100-500 euros for fees.

  • ahartxs

    Thanks for this article, it was very informative.  The main question I had was how much of a language barrier is there for graduate schools in foreign nations?  Will not knowing at least some of the language beforehand be impossible to overcome?

  • http://www.AroundtheWorldin80Jobs.com/ Around the World in 80 Jobs

    I did my undergrad at UC Berkeley, but wanted to take some time off. I did a grad program in Luxembourg not only for free, but actually got paid and found a paying internship. There are def. lots of opportunities abroad and money for foreigners if you know where to look. South Africa looks pretty sweet. Thanks for the great article.


  • Nigora

    Shoot I almost got a full scholarship at Uppsala University in Sweden… But Im an alternate candidate for Bradford University in England! Sigh, life isn’t that bad :)

  • http://twitter.com/rutakatiey Kate Ruta Pausig

    Sounds great. I know for a fact that some of these fees have probably changed since it was written like Germany. Just remember the pricing you are told here could be different because it was written in 2009.  But def. looking into these places. I have been to France it was beautiful and would love to study there. 

  • Jenbauer245

    Hi all…I am just wondering if most employers will recognize your degree if pursued in another country. I know of some internationally accredited undergraduate degrees but what about matters?

    • Jenbauer245

      Masters…auto correct

  • Savefolder99

    the ” Top Grad School” link doesen’t work

  • Cody

    Where are these numbers coming from? Immediately after reading this, I went to the Singapore National University official website, and looked at the graduate tuition for international students.  This article states that it is “around $4000 a year”.  The official University website states that it is $20,150 per year.

  • http://pipstraveltips.blogspot.de/ Pip

    Germany: ”
    You’ll have to contend with somewhat exorbitant living costs.” Not true! I live in Leipzig in the former East Germany, and average rooms in a student flat share cost as little as 200 € all in! Food and drink are amazingly cheap too. What’s more, I have also studied in Oldenburg in the west, and a room in a student residence was 150 € per month. Munich is fairly expensive from what I hear, but certainly nothing compared to other European cities like Paris, London or Brussels (now they are what I would call exorbitant), and the capital, Berlin, is very affordable.

  • Rmpisani

    A beer in Sweden would cost closer to 10 euros…if it cost any at all, since they are not part of the European Union and user Kronas I believe.

  • Razberry_1

    Your article sucks. You have to be a resident of the country to be eligible for “free tuition” or the significantly low tuition fees..otherwise it’s still very expensive to attend school abroad. You also have to show you have thousands in the bank just to obtain a foreing student visa. Misleading blog is misleading.  

    • Ramelle

      As I am studying my masters prigram in Germany paying only 500 euro a year and am not a citizen I would say you are a bit misinformed yourself.

      • lee

        are you American?

  • http://pulse.yahoo.com/_CCPXWG6O4LGMBSH7MHBRYNWKUU X R

    you forgot to mention that the reputation of overseas institutions is horrible and that most likely if you intend to return to work in the USA, your degree will be overlooked.  

  • Guest

    Well written article, however, Razberry_1 has a point. As non-EU citizens, don’t we pay a different price? How much cheaper would it be then? 

  • Furuya Sachi

    In Japan, some graduate schools are no charge tuition. Some school totel five years tuitions came in around $20,000 USA.

  • Anonymous

    hey sarah , can u let me know the value of german Master’s certificate, outside the europe continent…like will there be any preferance for a german Master’s certificate in USA…or CANADA…

  • Gina Snyder

    I was researching Uppsala and there are tuition fees for masters programs with international students. Am I interpreting this wrong?

    • Alex Leuser

      The tuition fees are really small was the point of the article

    • Gina Snyder

      Ya I get that. Lol i’m asking about uppsala in particular.

    • Deborah Wilson Soleto

      I read on another site that sweeden changed it’s free policy for international students in 2011 but its still cheap.

  • Arash Azizi

    Does anybody know if there are English graduate courses on the offer in Spain?

    • Faraz Azad

      Universitat Pompeu Fabra — though it provides training in English in order to maintain its elitist reputation within the country.

    • Faraz Azad

      Lots of leftists.

    • Mohammad Eskandari

      One of my colleagues — a professor at WSU — was proud to have sent both his children to Europe for higher eduction: “They learn a foreign language, they get to see the world, and it’s much cheaper!” And one can add, in many cases even better!

    • Arash Azizi

      Faraz! Wow! Yeah Pomepu Fabra is the best. I am looking for as ‘elitist’ as possible, of course, since I am under no pettie-bouregsoie illusion about the role of university in capitalist societies :D But that’s a different discussion! @[100000594315014:2048:Megumi Kubo], let’s go! Pompeu Fabra is also in Barcelona and most highly-ranked university in the country.

    • Megumi Kubo


  • Mbunya Jude Amin

    is the tuition fee also free for international students wishing to study IN UPPSALLA.

  • Priya Patkar

    yeah..most of these facts do not apply to non EU residents..

  • Andrew Dunkle

    Taiwan could definitely be added to this list. There are scholarships available that will actually pay you to study Chinese and continue on into graduate school. Here’s a link with further information:


    • Renée Stephanie Taylor

      Thanks this is awesome!

    • Renée Stephanie Taylor

      Thanks this is awesome!

  • Nasreen Khan

    Unfortunately Uppsala university is only free for EU students. International students will pay somewhere around 12,000USD a year…still not bad…but not Free. “Application and tuition fees are required for students outside the European Union (EU), European Economic Area (EEA) and Switzerland.[...]Tuition fee, first semester: SEK 45000 Tuition fee, total: SEK 180000″ < http://www.uu.se/en/education/master/selma/program/?pKod=HEN2M&lasar=13/14>.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

    • buckybone

      Looks like that’s changed in the 5 years since the article went up. That government can’t exactly afford to subsidize education anymore, after all…

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Anonymous

    is Universidad de Barcelona really only $2,000 for foreign grad students. I find that absurdly implausible.

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Clarisse Hammerli

    In Brazil (University of São Paulo and others) the public under and graduate schools are public and totally free! And more, in your masters and PhD, the government gives a scholarship to the first places

  • Priyanka

    This article has been written a little less than 5 years ago. Sweden no longer offers tuition-free education to international students. France and Spain charge really high tuition especially from non-EU students. I suggest this article to be taken down as much of the information given here is outdated. It no longer applies, and is misleading for the readers.

  • http://Thepersonnesnoires.wordpress.com/ ThisShouldBeFun

    My soul is weeping at the thought of my student loan debt…

    Shame on you America!

  • Peter

    Quite a bit of this information is incorrect or misleading. Also, you should have included the KU Leuven in Belgium. The most obvious and inexpensive grad program in Europe for English speakers is at this school.

  • Arttu

    This was a very good list :) I just wanted to add Finland offers free education as well. Unlike Sweden we still accept foreign students for free, after the initiative to push payments for non-EU residents backfired again. However, the selection for international graduate programs is limited, but most universities still offer at least 3-4 such programs (University of Turku offers at least bioimaging).

    When it comes to supporting yourself I admit specially the Scandinavian countries are expensive to live in. Luckily there are a lot of grants and scholarships for international students, with only few people able to benefit from them. I would also like to think that with the amount of resources we’ve put into making our programs more appealing internationally we’re also willing to give our foreign students all the help they need in finding a job.

    I’d also like to note that Finnish (and Scandinavian) graduate programs are very different from their US counterparts and the program will most likely require some additional classes to your undergraduate degree. This is because the undergraduate and graduate studies are strictly professional studies (general studies are taught in upper secondary school).